Computer networking technologies are the glue that binds these elements together.
Networking allows one computer to send information to and receive information from another. We
can classify network technologies as belonging to one of two basic groups. Local area network
(LAN) technologies connect many devices that are relatively close to each other, usually in the
same building. The library terminals that display book information would connect over a local area
network. Wide area network (WAN) technologies connect a smaller number of devices that can
be many kilometers apart.
Contents: 1. Fundamentals: Chapters 1 through 4 focus on the fundamental aspects of data and data analysis: introduction to data mining ( chapter 1), measurement (chapter 2), summarizing and visualizing data (chapter 3), and uncertainty and inference ( chapter 4). 2. Data Mining Components: Chapters 5 through 8 focus on what we term the "components" of data mining algorithms: these are the building blocks that can be used to systematically create and analyze data mining algorithms. In chapter 5 we discuss this systematic approach to algorithm analysis, and argue that this " component wise" view can provide a useful systematic perspective on what is often a very confusing landscape of data analysis algorithms to the novice student of the topic. In this context, we then delve into broad discussions of each component: model repr esentations in chapter 6, score functions for fitting the models to data in chapter 7, and optimization and search techniques in chapter 8. (Discussion of data management is deferred until chapter 12 .) 3. Data Mining Tasks and Algorithms: Having discussed the fundamental components in the first 8 chapters of the text, the remainder of the chapters (from 9 through 14) are then devoted to specific data mining tasks and the algorithms used to address them. We organize the basic tasks into density estimation and clustering ( chapter 9), classification (chapter 10), regression (chapter 11), pattern discovery (chapter 13), and retrieval by content (chapter 14). In each of these chap ters we use the framework of the earlier chapters to provide a general context for the discussion of specific algorithms for each task. For example, for classification we ask: what models and representations are plausible and useful? what score functions s hould we, or can we, use to train a classifier? what optimization and search techniques are necessary? what is the computational complexity of each approach once we implement it as an actual algorithm? Our hope is that this general approach will provide thereader with a "roadmap" to an understanding that data mining algorithms are based on some very general and systematic principles, rather than simply aing blocks that can be used to systematically create and analyze data mining algorithms. In chapter 5 we discuss this systematic approach to algorithm analysis, and argue that this " component  wise" view can provide a useful systematic perspective on what is often a very confusing landscape of data analysis algorithms to the novice student of the topic. In this context, we then delve into broad discussions of each component: model repr esentations in chapter 6, score functions for fitting the models to data in chapter 7, and optimization and search techniques in chapter 8. cornucopia of seemingly unrelated and exotic algorithm.
In such scientific research, we are at a stage of development that is analogous to when the printing press was invented.Printing took a thousand years to develop and evolve into the many
forms it takes today. Using computers to gain understanding from data created and
stored in our electronic data stores will likely take decades—or less. The contributing authors in this volume have done an extraordinary job of helping to refine an understanding of this new paradigm from a variety of disciplinary perspectives.
Neuroscience: the Science of the Brain
Inside our heads, weighing about 1.5 kg, is an astonishing living organ consisting of
billions of tiny cells. It enables us to sense the world around us, to think and to talk.
The human brain is the most complex organ of the body, and arguably the most complex thing on earth. This booklet is an introduction for young students.
The following material is addressed to readers who are already familiar with applied mathematics
at the advanced undergraduate level or preferably higher; and with some eld, such as physics,
chemistry, biology, geology, medicine, economics, sociology, engineering, operations research, etc.,
where inference is needed.
A previous acquaintance with probability and statistics is not necessary;
indeed, a certain amount of innocence in this area may be desirable, because there will be less to
unlearn.
Science is often hard to read. Most people assume that its difficulties are born out of necessity, out of the extreme complexity of scientific concepts, data and analysis. We argue here that complexity of thought need not lead to impenetrability of expression; we demonstrate a number of rhetorical principles that can produce clarity in communication without oversimplifying scientific issues. The results are substantive, not merely cosmetic: Improving the quality of writing actually improves the quality of thought.
It is not easy today to capture the relationship between science and society. The days when modern science enjoyed a special status in Western societies are behind us. There was a time where a ‘social contract’ successfully ringfenced the autonomy of the scientific enterprise against
any social scrutiny, on the promise of scientific research being beneficial for the public good in the long run. Over the last decades this social contract has often been revisited,
particularly as all public expenditure has been fiercely scrutinised.
The following material is addressed to readers who are already familiar with applied mathematics at the advanced undergraduate level or preferably higher; such as physics, chemistry, biology, geology, medicine,economics, sociology, engineering, operations research, etc.,where inference is needed.
A previous acquaintance with probability and statistics is not necessary; indeed, a certain amount of innocence in this area may be desirable, because there will be less to unlearn.
Inside our heads, weighing about 1.5 kg, is an astonishing living organ consisting of billions of tiny cells. It enables us to sense the world around us, to think and to talk.The human brain is the most complex organ of the body, and arguably the mostcomplex thing on earth. This booklet is an introduction for young students.
Science is a methodical approach to studying the natural
world. Science asks basic questions, such as how does the world work? How did the world come to be? What was the world like in the past, what is it like now, and what will it be like in the future? These questions are answered using observation, testing, and interpretation through logic.
Neglect hitherto of the availability of astronomy for a laboratory course has mainly led to the preparation of this New Astronomy. Written purelywith a pedagogic purpose, insistence upon rightness of principles, no matterhow simple, has everywhere been preferred to display of precision in result. To instance a single example: although the pupil's equipment be but a
yardstick, a pinhole, and the `rule of three,' will he not reap greater benet
from measuring the sun for himself (page230) than from learning mere
detail of methods employed by astronomers in accurately measuring that
luminary?
A First Course in General Relativity Second Edition
Clarity, readability, and rigor combine in the second edition of this widely used textbook
to provide the first step into general relativity for undergraduate students with a minimal
background in mathematics
Protons, electrons, neutrons, neutrinos and even quarks are often featured in
news of scientific discoveries. All of these, and a whole "zoo" of others, are tiny
subatomic particles too small to be seen even in microscopes. While molecules and atoms are the basic elements of familiar substances that we can see and feel, we have to "look"
within atoms in order to learn about the "elementary" subatomic particles and to understand the nature of our Universe. The science of this study is called Particle Physics, Elementary Particle Physics or sometimes High Energy Physics (HEP)
This is a twosemester course in ndimensional calculus with a review of the necessary linear algebra. It covers the derivative, the integral, and a variety of applications. An emphasis is made on the coordinate free, vector analysis.
Introductory Physics 1
This introductory mechanics text is intended to be used in the first semester of a twosemester
series of courses teaching introductory physics at the college level, followed by a second semester
course in introductory electricity and magnetism, and optics. The text is intended to support
teaching the material at a rapid, but advanced level – it was developed to support teaching
introductory calculusbased physics to potential physics majors, engineers, and other natural science
majors at Duke University over a period of more than thirty years.
Introductory Physics 2
This introductory electromagnetism and optics text is intended to be used in the second semester
of a twosemester series of courses teaching introductory physics at the college level, following a first
semester course in (Newtonian) mechanics and thermodynamics. The text is intended to support
teaching the material at a rapid, but advanced level – it was developed to support teaching introductory
calculusbased physics to potential physics majors, engineers, and other natural science majors
at Duke University over a period of more than twentyfive years.
Calculus Based Physicsis a twovolume introductory physics textbook complete with
ancillary materials. It can be used as is or edited/modified by users. Ancillary
materials include physics problems with screencapture video solutions, Physics
question slides, and online quizzes.
This book is intended for undergraduate students in Mechanical, Chemical, and
Aeronautical Engineering.
The book contains chapters on Isentropic Flow (nozzle flow),
Isothermal Nozzle, Shock wave and Oblique shocks, and PrandtlMeyer flow as
well chapters on Isothermal Flow, Fanno Flow, and Rayleigh Flow.
Classic kinetics (e.g. in chemistry) is based on the assumption
that reactions take place in small vessels ... is often not justified. This book
formulates a basis for a kinetics where the “mixing condition” is relaxed: the
condition is qualitatively deleted – not merely neutralized by use of various
approximations.
An examination of the benefits and potential dangers of the new technology revolution
The book is outofprint. A scanned version (PDF format) may be downloaded for personal use.
Molecular Cell Biology
A really nice book with a weird interface where you're required to type in a keyword search to access the chapters. Apparently there's no way to read it chapter by chapter.
In quantum computers we exploit quantum effects to compute in ways that are faster or more efficient than, or even impossible, on conventional computers. Quantum computers use a specific physical implementation to gain a computational advantage over conventional computers. Properties called superposition and entanglement may, in some cases, allow an exponential amount of parallelism. Also, special purpose machines like quantum cryptographic devices use entanglement and other peculiarities like quantum uncertainty.
 Universal algebra for computer science  all the algebra computer scientists will need
 Lessons in Electric Circuits  6 volumes, the last one published in January 2004, for students in Electrical Engineering. Scroll down for complete downloads of all the books in a single tar.gz file.
 Structure and interpretation of classical mechanics  There has been a remarkable revival of interest in classical mechanics in recent years. We now know that there is much more to classical mechanics than previously suspected. The behavior of classical systems is surprisingly rich; derivation of the equations of motion, the focus of traditional presentations of mechanics, is just the beginning. Classical systems display a complicated array of phenomena such as nonlinear resonances, chaotic behavior, and transitions to chaos.
 How language works: the cognitive science of linguistics  Students studying linguistics for the first time often have misconceptions about what it is about and what it can offer them. They may think that linguists are authorities on what is correct and what is incorrect in a given language. But linguistics is the science of language; it treats language and linguistic behavior as phenomena to be studied scientifically. Linguists want to figure out how language works. They are no more in the business of making value judgments about people's language than geologists are in the business of making value judgments about the behavior of the earth.
 Modern Signal Processing  Signal processing is a ubiquitous part of modern technology. Its mathematical basis and many areas of application are the subject of this book, based on a series of graduatelevel lectures held at the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute. Emphasis is on current challenges, new techniques adapted to new technologies, and certain recent advances in algorithms and theory. The book covers two main areas: computational harmonic analysis, envisioned as a technology for efficiently analyzing real data using inherent symmetries; and the challenges inherent in the acquisition, processing and analysis of images and sensing data in general  ranging from sonar on a submarine to a neuroscientist's fMRI study.
 Model Theory, Algebra, and Geometry  Model theory is a branch of mathematical logic that has found applications in several areas of algebra and geometry. It provides a unifying framework for the understanding of old results and more recently has led to significant new results, such as a proof of the MordellLang conjecture for function fields in positive characteristic. Perhaps surprisingly, it is sometimes the most abstract aspects of model theory that are relevant to these applications.
 Comparison Geometry  Comparison Geometry asks: What can we say about a Riemannian manifold if we know a (lower or upper) bound for its curvature, and perhaps something about its topology? Powerful results that allow the exploration of this question were first obtained in the 1950s by Rauch, Alexandrov, Toponogov, and Bishop, with some ideas going back to Hopf, Morse, Schoenberg, Myers, and Synge in the 1930s.
 Mathematical Tools for Physics  This text is in PDF format, and is my attempt to provide a less expensive alternative to some of the printed texts currently available for this course. If you find any mistakes or any parts that are unclear or any topics that you think I should not have omitted, please tell me. I intend this for the undergraduate level, providing a onesemester bridge between some of the introductory math courses and the physics courses in which we expect to use the mathematics. This is the course typically called Mathematical Methods in Physics at many universities.
 The Chaos Hypertextbook  Mathematics in the age of computers
 Immunology Overview  bacteriology, virology, mycology, parasitology, infectious diseases and lots of fun stuff if you're a biology or medical major
 A Radically Modern Approach to Introductory Physics  This text has developed out of an alternate beginning physics course at New Mexico Tech designed for those students with a strong interest in physics. The course includes students intending to major in physics, but is not limited to them. The idea for a "radically modern" course arose out of frustration with the standard twosemester treatment. It is basically impossible to incorporate a significant amount of "modern physics" (meaning post19th century!) in that format. Furthermore, the standard course would seem to be specifically designed to discourage any but the most intrepid students from continuing their studies in this area  students don't go into physics to learn about balls rolling down inclined planes  they are (rightly) interested in quarks and black holes and quantum computing, and at this stage they are largely unable to make the connection between such mundane topics and the exciting things that they have read about in popular books and magazines. It would, of course, be easy to pander to students  teach them superficially about the things they find interesting, while skipping the "hard stuff". However, I am convinced that they would ultimately find such an approach as unsatisfying as would the educated physicist.
 The Unknowable  Having published four books on this subject, why a fifth?! Because there's something new: I compare and contrast Godel's, Turing's and my work in a very simple and straightforward manner using LISP.
 Exploring randomness  I really want you to follow my example and hike off into the wilderness and explore AIT on your own! You can stay on the trails that I've blazed and explore the wellknown part of AIT, or you can go off on your own and become a fellow researcher, a colleague of mine! One way or another, the goal of this book is to make you into a participant, not a passive observer of AIT. In other words, it's too easy to just listen to a recording of AIT, that's not the way to learn music. I'd like you to learn to play it on an instrument yourself, or, better still, to even become a composer!
 Introduction to packet radio  This series of eighteen articles was originally written in 1988 to appear in Nuts & Volts, the newsletter of the San Francisco Amateur Radio Club. The series has been widely distributed since then, with revisions issued in 1991, 1993, and 1995. Occasional revisions were made to this version on the web thereafter, in the late 1990s. The author is no longer active in packet radio and is unable to provide up to date information on packet radio; however he has left this material on the Internet for access by those who might find it helpful.
 Newtonian Physics  not a programming or computer science book, but considering how many computer science majors have to take physics sooner or later in their life, this is a good place to start. A free Physics textbook suitable for introductory college Physics course.
 Fundamentals of Die Casting  pdf file:Technologies for die casting professionals: Technologies developed in recent years are described in this book. Errors of the old models and the violations of physical laws are shown. Examples: The ``common'' \pQtwo{} diagram violates many physical laws, such as the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The ``common'' \pQtwo{} diagram produces trends that don't reflect reality.
 A problem course in Mathematical Logic  A Problem Course in Mathematical Logic is intended to serve as the text for an introduction to mathematical logic for undergraduates with some mathematical sophistication. It supplies definitions, statements of results, and problems, along with some explanations, examples, and hints. The idea is for the students, individually or in groups, to learn the material by solving the problems and proving the results for themselves. The book should do as the text for a course taught using the modified Mooremethod. The material and its presentation are pretty strippeddown and it will probably be desirable for the instructor to supply further hints from time to time or to let the students consult other sources. Various concepts and and topics that are often covered in introductory mathematical logic or computability courses are given very short shrift or omitted entirely, among them normal forms, definability, and model theory.
 A Heat Transfer Textbook  We are placing a mechanical engineering textbook into an electronic format for worldwide, nocharge distribution. The aim of this effort is to explore the possibilities of placing textbooks online  effectively giving them away. Two potential benefits should accrue from doing this. First, in electronic format, textbooks can be continually corrected and updated, without the delays inherent in printed books (second and later editions are typically published on a fiveyear cycle). Second, free textbooks hold the potential for fundamentally altering the economics of higher education, particularly in those environments where money is scarce.
 Stephen Wolfram  New Kind of Science  When Stephen Wolfram of Mathematica fame selfpublished A New Kind of Science in 2002, he raised the suspicions of many in scientific communities that he was taking advantage of a lot of other people's work for his sole financial gain and that he was going against the open nature of academia by using restrictive copyright. Yesterday, Wolfram and company released the entire contents of NKS for free on the Web (short registration required). Perhaps Wolfram is giving back to the scientific community; perhaps it is simply clever marketing for a framework that is beginning to gain momentum. For any matter, the entire encyclopedic volume is online, and this appears to be a positive step for scientific writing.
 Cheap Complex Devices  Computers can play chess as well as any grandmaster. They can diagnose cancer as well as any oncologist, find oil as well as any seismologist. But can they do that most human of all activities: can they tell a story? Read Cheap Complex Devices and find out. This volume, edited by John Compton Sundman, (an erstwhile technical writer whose outofprint manuals command large sums at online auctions, now a recluse), contains the two winning entries of the novelwriting contest sponsored by the Society for Analytical Engines (SAE). The introduction to Cheap Complex Devices, written by the SAE Contest Committee, contains the history of the contest and explains the criteria by which the entries were judged.
 The Scientist and Engineer's Guide to Digital Signal Processing  available in PDF format. Excellent book to start with digital signal processing, by the way.
 Computer Aids for VLSI Design  HTML book with nice table of contents.
 Neural Nets: A Neural Network is an interconnected assembly of simple processing elements, units or nodes, whose functionality is loosely based on the animal neuron. The processing ability of the network is stored in the interunit connection strengths, or weights, obtained by a process of adaptation to, or learning from, a set of training patterns.
In order to see how very different this is from the processing done by conventional computers it is worth examining the underlying principles that lie at the heart of all such machines.

Other Maths books for free download Most college mathematics textbooks attempt to be all things to all people and, as a result, are much too big and expensive. This perhaps made some sense when these books were rather expensive to produce and distributebut this time has passed.
 Machine Language For Beginners Machine Language or Assembly language is the programming language that directly talks with the machine or computer at the basic machine level. So, machine language is fast, flexible and consumes less memory, but at the same time is a bit complex for novices. This free book download by Richard Mansfield describes the language with reference to easily comprehensible BASIC language with great figures and charts, to make it simple for any programmer. Although understanding machine language requires a study of microprocessor architecture, this book is not alone enough to understand the architecture of microprocessor. The book describes mostly 6502 machine language, but on the positive side it has appendices and instructions to convert the programming examples given into any machine language version. Another advantage with this book is that it describes programming for most personal computers.

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